Kidney stones are caused by the abnormal accumulation of crystal substances in the kidney. it is a common and frequently-occurring disease of the urinary system, which is more common in men than in women, mostly in young adults, and there is no significant difference in the incidence between the left and right sides. 90% contain calcium, of which calcium oxalate stones are the most common. 40% to 75% of patients with kidney stones have varying degrees of low back pain.
The stone is large; the degree of movement is very small, manifested as waist distension discomfort, or dull pain or dull pain when physical activity increases. Colic caused by smaller stones, often sudden lumbar and abdominal knife-like severe pain, showing paroxysmal. Calculi can occur in any part of the urinary system but often originate in the kidney. Renal stones are mostly located in the renal pelvis or calyx and can be discharged into the ureter and bladder. Almost all ureteral stones come from the kidney.
Kidney stone is a manifestation of abnormal mineralization of the human body. After the formation of kidney stones, it may cause radiating pain from the waist to the lower abdomen and perineum, and in severe cases may be accompanied by sweating, nausea, vomiting and other symptoms.
The diameter of the ureter in normal human body is only about 5-7 mm. If the stone is less than 6 mm, it is possible to expel the ureter from the body smoothly.
If the size of the stone is more than 6 mm, it is not only difficult to discharge, but also may continue to “grow up” under the action of urine crystallization to form renal pelvis stones, resulting in obstruction and secondary kidney stones.
If kidney stone obstruction is complicated with infection, it will have a serious impact on kidney function!
People at risk of kidney stones or patients with hyperuricemia should pay attention to adjusting their diet and living habits:
1. Do not or try to avoid eating high purine foods such as seafood and beer.
2. Drinking plenty of soda can help alkalize urine and reduce the chance of uric acid stone formation.
3. Do physical examination on time, especially urine examination and B-ultrasound examination.
Stones with a diameter less than 6-7 mm and a smooth surface may be excreted by themselves with the help of a lot of drinking water and skipping rope; if the stone is too large, its diameter is between 6 mm-2 cm, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is recommended; if the stone diameter is greater than 2 cm, minimally invasive surgery is recommended.
The following is from the Department of Urology of the third people’s Hospital affiliated to the Medical College of Shanghai Jiaotong University, published in the Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University.
The title of this paper is “study on the Protective effect of hydrogen-rich Water on Renal Tubular epithelial injury induced by hyperoxaluria in Rats”, which is a bit difficult for non-professional readers. In fact, the purpose of this study is to tell readers that hydrogen has a therapeutic effect on kidney stones in animals.
Calcium oxalate kidney stone is a high incidence of urinary system, how to effectively prevent it has become the focus of research. Hyperoxaluria promotes the formation of calcium oxalate renal calculi. Renal tubular epithelial oxalate microcrystallization deposition is necessary for renal stone formation, but normal healthy cells can not adhere to crystallization. It can be seen that there is a more complex mechanism for the occurrence of calcium oxalate stones.
It has been confirmed that in hyperoxaluria, peroxidation damage of renal tubular cells is an important factor for the nucleation and formation of calcium oxalate crystals. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in renal tubular epithelial cells exposed to oxalate is significantly increased, followed by cell damage caused by membrane lipid peroxidation. The damage of renal cells leads to the disappearance of membrane lipid asymmetry and cell polarity, which will lead to the change of cell membrane surface and enhance the adhesion to crystallization.
Hydrogen is a selective antioxidant, and hydrogen-rich water is a method of giving hydrogen, which can remove excess ROS from body tissue, increase the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduce the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), so as to protect renal tissue cells and block the process of lithogenesis. The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of hyperoxaluria on apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells in rats and to explore the effect of hydrogen-rich water on this effect.
56 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into blank control group (drinking deionized water, feeding with deionized water), simple induced stone group (drinking 1% ethylene glycol solution, fed with deionized water), simple hydrogen rich water control group (drinking deionized water, redox potential-140mV high concentration hydrogen rich water), magnesium hydroxide control group (drinking 1% ethylene glycol solution. Magnesium hydroxide solution) and high, medium and low concentration hydrogen-rich water intervention groups (drinking 1% ethylene glycol solution, redox potential-140mV,-110mV or-60mV hydrogen-rich water), 8 rats in each group, continuously treated for 4 weeks.
The 24-hour urinary oxalic acid concentration, the apoptosis index (AI) of renal tubular epithelial cells, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in renal tissue were measured. Results the 24-hour urinary oxalic acid concentration in the simple induced stone group, magnesium hydroxide control group and high, middle and low concentration hydrogen-rich water intervention groups were significantly higher than those in the blank control group and simple hydrogen-rich water control group (P0.05). The AI of renal tubular epithelial cells in the simple induced stone group was significantly higher than that in the blank control group (P0.05). The AI of renal tubular epithelial cells in the high, middle and low concentration hydrogen-rich water intervention groups were 46.8%, 60.0% and 92.6% of those in the simple induced stone group, respectively, showing a significant dose-effect relationship. The concentration of hydrogen-rich water was positively correlated with the activity of SOD in renal tissue (r = 0.683, P 0.05), and negatively correlated with the content of MDA in kidney (r = 0.736, P 0.05).
[Conclusion] hyperoxaluria can increase the apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells, and hydrogen-rich water has a significant protective effect.
Drinking hydrogen-rich water every day can effectively remove harmful substances from the body and keep you healthy.