There have been many studies on the anti-fatigue effect of hydrogen, but the molecular mechanism of hydrogen anti-fatigue is still insufficient. Recently, Tianjin Institute of Environment and Vocational Medicine conducted a study on the molecular mechanism of hydrogen water anti-fatigue and found that drinking hydrogen water can affect the composition of intestinal flora, or optimize intestinal flora, and then affect muscle metabolism through the production of intestinal flora metabolites, and improve the number and function of mitochondria, thus exerting the anti-fatigue effect. Of course, since there is no very clear molecular process, it is also possible that hydrogen plays a role by directly affecting the function of cells and mitochondria. This study increased the evidence of the anti-exercise fatigue effect of hydrogen water, and made a deep discussion from the perspective of intestinal flora and mitochondria, which is a relatively deep research of hydrogen in sports medicine.
Previous studies have shown that hydrogen water has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on fatigue caused by exercise; However, its molecular mechanism is still unclear.
Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into pure water drinking group (NC) and hydrogen water drinking group (HW)(n=7), and the exercise model was established by treadmill training for 2 weeks. 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis was used to analyze the intestinal bacterial community. The expression levels of mitochondrial energy metabolism related genes, sugar metabolites and enzymes were measured.
The exercise tolerance of rats in water group was significantly improved, and the distribution and diversity of intestinal microorganisms were changed. Hydrogen significantly upregulates genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis, possibly through Pparγ/Pgc-1α/Tfam pathway. In addition, hydrogen effectively mediates the reprogramming of skeletal muscle glucose metabolism.
Our research results promote mitochondrial biogenesis through Pparγ/ Pgc-1α/Tfam pathway, and confirm the key role of hydrogen in improving endurance sports performance.
Exhausted exercise refers to continuous or repeated exercise when the body is overloaded. More and more evidence shows that besides physical fatigue, exercise-induced fatigue (EF) can also damage cognition and physiological functions of gastrointestinal tract. However, due to complex regulatory factors, the pathogenesis of fatigue remains to be determined, and little is known about the non-drug treatment to relieve fatigue.
Recently, the influence of exercise on intestinal microflora has become more and more research fields. Many studies have shown that moderate exercise can regulate intestinal flora and promote lasting brain and metabolic health. However, excessive exercise leads to the increase of intestinal permeability, intestinal barrier dysfunction and intestinal flora composition, leading to systemic inflammation. In chronic fatigue syndrome, the diversity and composition of intestinal microbiome decreased, and the intestinal permeability increased. Intestinal microflora is a collection of symbiotic microorganisms existing in the gut, which codes rich metabolic enzymes, so it has a strong metabolic capacity. The fermentation products of intestinal flora are important for regulating the energy metabolism of liver and skeletal muscle during exercise. A large number of studies have shown that mitochondrial function plays an important role in permanent injury caused by strenuous exercise. Therefore, targeting mitochondrial function may provide a potential solution to prevent skeletal muscle injury.
Recently, hydrogen has been described as a therapeutic antioxidant, which can selectively remove harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) under experimental and clinical disease conditions. Preliminary studies on humans show that hydrogen-rich water (HRW) may help to relieve fatigue and lactic acid accumulation caused by strenuous exercise. Another study showed that drinking hydrogen water (HW) had anti-fatigue effect on mice subjected to compulsory swimming test of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Anaerobic fermentation of intestinal flora can also produce hydrogen, and hydrogen produced by intestinal flora also contributes to energy production. Therefore, when considering hardware, the influence of intestinal flora can not be ignored. (Hydrogen Language: This problem brings great trouble to the action of hydrogen through intestinal flora. On the one hand, there is a theoretical basis for the influence of hydrogen on intestinal flora. On the other hand, it brings complexity to the direct or indirect effect of hydrogen. ）
Mitochondrial dysfunction is related to the changes of intestinal flora, which is influenced by endurance exercise. The increase of mitochondrial biogenesis can compensate for the large consumption of ATP after exercise training. Hydrogen can penetrate the mitochondrial membrane, prevent the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and protect mitochondria from ROS. Oxidative stress is related to the changes of mitochondrial structure and/or function, which is characterized by decreased energy production and oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction. A previous study showed that with the increase of citrate synthase activity, hydrogen-rich water stimulated the cardiac proliferation of mitochondria and the persistence of mitochondrial respiratory function in grafts, which reflected the mitochondrial density. This study explored the molecular mechanism of hydrogen and its potential to improve endurance sports performance.
Our data verify the hypothesis that hydrogen water can improve mitochondrial function by increasing ATP production and delaying exercise-induced fatigue. In this case, hydrogen can be used as a safe alternative liquid therapy for exercise control of acute exhaustion.